Aquaculture has been globally recognized as the fastest growing food production sector (FAO). The intensive farming of finfishes and shellfishes has led to an imbalance of optimal culture conditions, which shows increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Increased incidence of microbial diseases in aquaculture system is the major obstacle in the success of the industry. Use of antibiotics has attracted lot of criticism due to the issues like antibiotic residues, bacterial drug resistance and toxicity. In this present scenario, vaccination would be the best alternative to combat bacterial and viral disease for the sustainable aquaculture. The first report on fish vaccination was by David C. B.